The Eye of the Beholder:
‘Voice Appropriation’ in the Context of Gender, Caste, Sexuality and Ethnicity in Selected
Modern Indian English/Diasporic Texts
Under the guidance of
Dr R Raj Rao
Department of English
University of Pune
Statement of Problem
Minority literature or literature of the margins is essentially a literature of protest. It is a protest against existing cultural and social categories where the downtrodden have been victimised by those who have power. As protest literature, it voices out against the existing system and tries to find an alternative. Apart from that, protest literature also tries to bring out a picture of minority lives ‘as is’ in a fictional representation.
Thus, to begin with, minority literature is pitted against the existing literature, the mainstream literature.
Mainstream literature has a long history while minority literature is a recent offshoot. In the beginning, literature was the prerogative of those in power. Literature represented their concerns and their worldview. While doing so, minority issues were completely sidelined, and even when they were talked about, it was scanty and less than expected.
Then the downtrodden of society began to write about themselves. In those texts we began to see a different worldview and a different concern. This difference was in the sense of relating a different experience, other than mainstream experience. It is called ‘minority literature’ because it talks about the minority experience, and it is called ‘protest literature’ because it protests against the representation of minoritism in mainstream writing.
Here, we must understand that minority literature or the literature of the margins as protest literature is not in binary opposition to mainstream writing. Rather, it builds upon mainstream writing.
There are arguments that protest writing is born out of frustration, anger and misrepresentation. (Since the ‘other’ has failed to tell the story in the right perspective, minority categories take the reigns in their own hands and try to tell their own stories.) It is not as much about protest as it is about establishing ‘facts,’ the reality.
The word ‘protest’ entails another word, ‘support’. Does this current argument suggest that mainstream writing follow an ‘anti-minority’ attitude, an ‘anti-support’ vein of writing that sparks the beginning of protest literature? It is not easy to answer this question point blank. Minority issues in mainstream writing stay in the grey area between acceptance and rejection. In most cases, things are taken for granted, and, whenever possible, conveniently ignored.
Thus, at the heart of it, protest literature is a protest against ‘voice appropriation.’ The dictionary meaning of appropriation is ‘using something that belongs to someone else,’ usually without having the right to do so. For years in mainstream writing, minority characters made their appearance and the way their think, act and speak are determined by the writer who does not share the experience of the characters even remotely. Here, the writer appropriates the minority voice, thereby representing an inaccurate world of minority discourse.
The phenomenon of minority literature has flourished since independence, and there have been discussions on the issue. But there has not been any attempt to understand the process of minority ‘voice appropriation’ in mainstream texts, the very reason why minority texts appeared, and try to build a bridge between mainstream and minority texts within the context of cultural categories.
This study takes on a compare-and-contrast mode in an attempt to understand voice appropriation in mainstream texts. However, rather than looking at minority writing per se, we plan to focus on mainstream literature, with special reference to four selected texts by canonical writers to try and decipher the codes of voice appropriation in those texts. Each text we have selected represents one cultural category and we plan to pit this text against the body of minority writing in that category.
The hypothesis is that protest literature is not just a protest against the social inequalities of cultural categories like caste, creed, gender, sexuality and so on, but also a protest against how these categories are represented in mainstream texts. This, as pointed out above, is an area to which not much attention has been given so far. Earlier, it was the privilege of upper caste, upper class, heterosexual, male writers to write on any subject they chose to. Then, the minorities began to write, and when they did so, they documented and chronicled their personal experience. This is an important concept to comprehend and intercept. While a mainstream writer (say, Raja Rao in The Serpent and the Rope) takes a spiritual subject and a vast canvas, the scope of most minority writing is limited. It begins with personal experience and almost ends there.
One possible explanation may be this: there is actually nothing new to say about mainstream experience, while minority experience in mainstream writing is always seen from the outside. For a person living on the periphery, his experience is totally different from that of a mainstream writer who has represented a minority experience. (For example, a physically agile writer writing about a handicapped protagonist will write differently than a Firdaus Kanga writing about his life on a wheelchair, or a Ved Mehta talking about his blindness.)
Thus, our hypothesis is that protest literature is not only a singular protest against its oppressor, but is also an attempt to set the record straight.
With this hypothesis in mind, we propose to study a few selected mainstream texts and try to find out what is ‘missing’ in these texts as opposed to the whole body of writing within that category.
Premila Paul writing about the art of Mulk Raj Anand concludes that “Untouchable ends with a hope of salvation of class system slowly emerging out of this mechanised society.” Paul also compares the impact of the novel with that of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or the writings of James Baldwin. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s powerful document on anti-slavery can be considered as a cornerstone of the ‘black writing’ that was to follow in American Literature. In the same way Anand’s Untouchable paved the way for the writing of caste minorities. Thus, the argument is that the real, thought imperfect, understanding of minority issues begins with the writings of mainstream canonical writers.
In this study, we propose to see whether this argument holds water in the context of Indian writing, and if so, to what extent.
For our study we have selected four texts by four well-known writers within four distinct categories. Among these four texts, three are novels while one is personal travelogue, belonging to the genre of non-fiction. Therefore, we have decided upon the generic term ‘text.’ There are theoretical problems of using the word ‘text’ within the context of both fictional and non-fictional writing. Even the word ‘discourse’ has its own problems. However, the main concern here is not the problem of genre, but the written word, and the experience it documents. The experience may be real or fictional. What we understand is the tone and the context of these experiences.
The four texts in question are:
The Dark Room by R K Narayan
Untouchable by Mulk Raj Anand
Strange Obsession by Sobha De
An Area of Darkness by V S Naipaul
Additionally, we also intend to look at the short story “Artha” by Vikram Chandra.
Scope of Research
To prove our point, we plan to undertake a close study of four texts written by mainstream canonical writers about minority experience. We plan to undertake a close study of these texts and pit them against selected texts from a wider variety of minority experiences to see how mainstream writing represents minority experience; how the literature of the margin responds to the issue in question.
Mulk Raj Anand’s Indian Ulysses talks about a lower caste young man’s experience in the span of a single day. There is a mass of Dalit writing, both in Indian regional languages and in English translation, which can be studied to find out how Anand fails to portray an authentic Dalit character in his novel. Where Anand fails is in his approach to internalise the character of Bakha. In the long run, the novel reads as propaganda for the Gandhian movement, and this makes the scope of Bakha’s story very limited.
Saros Cowasjee argues: “Anand’s untouchable sweeper Bakha is not only intelligent, able-bodied and strong, with a broad frank face, glistering high cheek-bones, but is a picture of a male god.” Following Cowasjee’s remarks, Tabish Khair concludes that Bakha differs from other untouchables, not only in being handsome and clean, but also because he is “a champion at all games, has principles and a sense of duty.” Though in keeping with the realistic tradition of etching ‘individual’ characters, the particular kind of individuality bestowed on Bakha is heavily loaded and socially limited. For anyone, who has read Laxman Mane’s Upara, or Laxman Gaikwad’s Uchatya, the Dalit experience he (Anand) delineates rings a false note.
Narayan’s novel The Dark Room deals with a woman called Savitri and her existence. We plan to study the novel in the context of women’s writing.
No doubt Narayan’s approach to Savitri’s character is very sympathetic. Narayan has created a few memorable women characters in his fiction including Rosy in The Guide. But he fails to move away from the traditional point of view of woman as someone who cannot afford to have her own personal life.
The title of the novel says it all. Here, the ‘Dark Room’ is where Savitri lives. She is married to Ramani and everything is hunky-dory as long as her husband is with her, despite the fact that there is no love lost between them. Things worsen when Ramani acquires a mistress. Savitri fails to emulate her mythological namesake who brought her husband back from death. Instead, Narayan’s Savitri decides to kill herself by drowning in the river. But in Narayan’s world, a woman does not even have the right to choose her own death. Savitri is rescued by another man, an umbrella repairer and a part-time thief. After much struggle, Savitri comes to realise that she can’t live without a man in her life, and returns to her husband’s house, though a part of her is already dead.
One important thing to consider here is that unlike many women writers who write in the first person, Narayan’s novel is narrated in the third person and beyond a point fails to delve deep into the protagonist’s mind.
From a historical point of view (The Dark Room was first published in 1938), Narayan’s novel is an achievement. The women’s liberation movement in India was a far cry then and women’s issues were unheard of when Narayan wrote the book. Even at its worse, Narayan’s novel is sympathetic towards the central character. Unlike many other male writers of the time, he does not take Savitri for granted; neither does he make fun of Savitri’s desire to assert her independence.
Thus, it would a gross mistake to regard Narayan’s novel as a failure as far as women’s issues are concern. Narayan does his best, but beyond a point he fails to penetrate the skin of is protagonist, the way a woman writer, like Shashi Deshpande would have. When we compare The Dark Room to Shashi Deshpande’s That Long Silence, we are able to understand this better.
Shobha De’s novel Strange Obsession is about a lesbian woman who is obsessed with an upper class, heterosexual woman. Here, the lesbian woman is a villain, someone who does not belong to the female protagonist’s scheme of things. We plan to study De’s portrayal of a queer character against the backdrop of a heightened awareness of queer issues.
In De’s novel, Minx is painted as lesbian woman. But De refuses to use the L-word, and in the end, Minx’s obsession for Amrita is labelled as mental disorder. The relationship between Minx and Amrita is executed as a cat-and-mouse thriller, and there are no efforts to understand the characters in all their depth. Instead, De resorts to cheap thrills.
It is almost as if the two women come together only to titillate the readers. They resemble two women in a pornographic film meant predominantly for a male audience.
Pornography is an integral part of queer writing. But the way it is subverted in queer writing is absent in De. The tone of subversion is absent from her erotic scenes.
In the end, it is depressing to see how De disowns her protagonist by dismissing her as someone who is mentally sick.
An Area of Darkness is one of Naipaul’s travelogues, or critiques on India. Naipaul sees India with a Western eye and his views are marred by his own expectation of India. Naipaul comes to India in search of his roots and demands special treatment for himself. In one sense the book can be read like Salman Rushdie’s essay “Imaginary Homelands.” Naipaul also has a vision of India, and he is frustrated because his expectations were not met. Here, he tells the story of disillusionment and recognises that he is a homeless product of colonialism.
The noted poet and critic Nissim Ezekiel, in his essay “Naipaul’s India and Mine” writes that Naipaul has special gifts for the telling details and the penetrating observation based on it, but goes on to refute Nailpaul’s observation point by point, saying that his own India is not what Naipaul sees. Ezekiel’s India is the India of the insider, who understands its nuances, while Naipaul sees India from an outsider’s point of view.
In Aspects of the Novel, E M Forster uses the word ‘prophecy’ in the context of the narrator’s voice: “…is an accent in the novelist’s voice… His (the novelists; mark the word ‘his’) theme is the universal, or something universal, but he is not necessarily going to ‘say’ anything about the universe; he proposes to sing, and the strangeness of song arising from the hall of fiction is bound to give us a shock.” This accent in the novelist’s voice, this shock of his song elucidates the difference between R K Narayan and Shashi Deshpande, as we have discussed above.
The narrative voice, along with narrative point of view, also brings forth the question of ‘reliability’ within a text. For, most of the minorities, the personal is the political. Most minority writers write in the first person or use the ‘I’ narrative; whereas mainstream writing opts for third person narration. Alberto Moravia, in the introduction to his celebrated novel The Woman of Rome, offers an argument for his use of first person narration while telling the story of a young prostitute in Rome: “…all I have tried to do is to represent Adriana’s moral world, by doing her the same service the public letter writers perform when they interpret and put on paper… the unformulated sentiments of illiterate servant maids.”
But French feminists have not only questioned the authenticity and reliability of a male writer writing about a woman’s experience, but also point out that this kind of writing fails to document the real woman’s experience; for women think and write in a different way than men since their bodily experiences are different (French Feminism).
We can extend this feminist argument to other minority categories as well. If we do so, the texts we have selected create further problems of interpretation. All the three fictional texts we have selected follow the technique of third person narration. Even Naipual’s book, though written as a first person experience, is essentially a third person narrative in the sense that the narrator sees India from a metropolitan point of view.
We can discuss the narrative structure of Vikram Chandra’s story “Artha” to elucidate our argument. At the heart of Chandra’s story is a Muslim software professional, searching for his long-term Hindu lover who, as the story suggests, has been murdered by the mafia in riot-torn Bombay. The story follows a ‘four-tier’ narrative structure. The software professional tells his story while travelling on a train to one Mr Subramaniam. Now, the narrator of the story projects this Subramaniam as a teller of tales. Subramaniam tells the story to the narrator and the narrator then recounts the story to the reader. While passing through so many narrative voices, the real story loses its meaning. Chandra tries to tell us a gay love story. But at the end of the day, what we have is a typical heterosexual love affair between two men. It is the narrative voices that mar the authenticity of the story.
Tentative Outline of the Project
The project will contain total six chapters:
Defining Mainstream and Minority
Different Kinds of Minorities
Minority Literature in Indian Writing in English
Introduction to Primary Texts
Women’s Writing and The Dark Room
Brief History of Women’s Writing
The Tradition of Women’s Writing in India
Male Writers and Women Subjects
Woman Writers as Subject
The Dark Room
Outside the Dark Room: Feminist Writers
Dalit Writing and Untouchable
3.1 Brief History of Dalit Writing
3.2 The Pen as a means of protest
3.3 Outsiders writing
3.4 Writing the Self
3.6 The Politics of Protest
Queer Writing and Strange Obsession
4.1 Brief History of queer writing
4.2 Protest and Pornography
4.3 Sexual Dichotomies
4.4 Alternative Sexuality and the Public Gaze
4.5 Strange Obsession
4.6 Body as a Site of Protest
Ethnicity and An Area of Darkness
5.1 India as a Subject
5.2 Seeing India from Outside: Ours versus Theirs
5.3 Writing India
5.4 An Area of Darkness
5.5 Flickering Lights
6.1 The Binary of ‘Us’ and ‘Them’
6.2 The Findings: Towards Bridge the Gap
I Primary texts
Anand, Mulk Raj, Untouchable, (1933, Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1983)
De, Shobha, Strange Obsession (New Delhi: Penguin Books, 1992)
Naipaul, V S, An Area of Darkness (London: Andre Deutch, 1964)
Narayan, R K, The Dark Room (1998, Chennai: Indian Thought Publication, 2005)
Chandra, Vikram, Love and Longing in Bombay (London: Faber and Faber, 1997)
II Secondary texts
Advani, Rukun, Beethoven among the Cows (Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 1994)
Ali, Ahmed, Twilight in Delhi (1940, Delhi: Sterling, 1973)
Anand Mulk Raj, Coolie (1936, Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1988)
-------, The Sword and the Sickle (1942, Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1988)
Bhattacharya, Bhabhani, A Dream in Hawai (Delhi: Orient, 1983)
Bond, Ruskin, Rain in the Mountains (Delhi: Viking, 1993)
Chandra, Vikram, Red Earth and Pouring Rain (London: Faber and Faber, 1995)
Chatterjee, Bankim Chandra, Rajmohan’s Wife (1864, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003)
Chatterjee, Upamanyu, English, August (London: Faber and Faber, 1988)
-------, The Last Burden (London: Faber and Faber, 1994)
Chaudhari, Amit, A Strange and Sublime Address (London: Minerva, 1992)
-------, Afternoon Raag (London: Heinemann, 1993)
Day, Lal Behari, Govinda Samanta (publication details not known)
Dange, Arjun (ed) Poisoned Bread: Translation from Modern Marathi Dalit Literature (Orient Longman, 1992)
De, Shobha, Speed post: Letters to My Children About Loving, Caring, Coping with the World (New Delhi: Penguin Books, 1999)
Desai, Anita, Cry, The Peacock (1968, Delhi: Orient, 1993)
-------, Bye, Bye, Blackbird (1971, Delhi: Orient paperbacks, 1991)
-------, Fire on the Mountain (1977 London: Penguin, 1981)
-------, Clear Light of Day (1980, London: Penguin, 1982)
-------, Where Shall We Go This Summer (1982, Delhi: Orient, 1991)
-------, In Custody (1984, Delhi: Penguin, 1994)
-------, Baumgartner’s Bombay (1988, London: Penguin, 1989)
------, The Village by the Sea (1982, Delhi: Allied, 1983)
Gaikwad, Laxman, Uchalya: The Branded, Trans., P A Kolaharkar (New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1998)
Desani, GV, All About H. Hatter (1948, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1970)
Deshpande, Shashi, The Binding Vine (Delhi: Penguin, 1992)
Dhondy, Farrukh, Poona Company (1980, London: William Collins, 1985)
-------, Bombay Duck (Delhi: Rupa, 1991)
Ghosh, Amitav, The Circle of Reason (1986, London: Abacus, 1987)
-------, The Shadow Lines (Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 1988)
-------, In An Antique Land (Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 1992)
-------, The Calcutta Chromosome (Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 1996)
-------, The Glass Palace (Delhi: Ravi Dayal, 2000)
Ghosh, Sisir Kumar, Prince of Destiny (publication details not known)
Hariharan, Gita, Thousand Faces of Night (Delhi: Penguin, 1992)
Joshi, Arun, The Foreigner (1967) (Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1993)
Keshavan, Mukul, Looking Through Glass (Delhi: Penguin, 1995)
Krupa, Satthianandhan, Saguna (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Malagaonkar, Manohar, A Bend in the Ganges (Bombay: Jaico, 1985)
Markandaya, Kamala, Nectar in a Sieve (1954, Bombay: Jaico, 1996)
-------, A Handful of Rice (1966, Delhi: Orient, 1985)
Mehta, Rama, Inside the Haveli (1977, Delhi: Penguin, 1996)
Mistry, Rohinton, Such a Long Journey (1991), London: Faber and Faber, 1992)
-------, Tales from Firozshaw Baag (1987, Delhi: Rupa, 1993)
-------, A Fine Balance (1995, London: Faber and Faber, 1996)
-------, Family Matters (London: Faber and Faber, 2002)
Nahal, Chaman, Azaadi (1975, Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1979)
Narayan, R K, The Bachelor of Arts (1937, Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1985)
-------, The English Teacher (1945, Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1994)
-------, Waiting for Mahatma (1955, Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1993)
-------, The Guide (1959, Mysore: Indian Thought Publications, 1994)
Rao, Raja, Kanthapura (1938, Madras: Oxford University Press, 1984)
-------, The Serpent and the Rope (1960, Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1968)
Roy, Arundhati, The God of Small Things (Delhi: Viking, 1997)
Rushdie, Salman, Midnights Children (1981, London: Picador, 1982)
-------, The Moor’s Last Sigh (London: Jonathan Cape, 1995)
Sahagal, Nayantara, Rich Like Us (1983, London: Sceptre, 1993)
-------, Mistaken Identity (London: Heinemann, 1988)
Seth, Vikram, The Suitable Boy (London: Phoenix, 1993)
Sidhwa, Bapsi, Ice-Candy Man (Delhi: Penguin, 1990)
Singh, Khushwant, Train to Pakistan (1961, Delhi: Time Books, 1989)
Tharoor, Shashi, The Great Indian Novel (Delhi: Penguin, 1990)
III Secondary Resources
Ahmed, Aijaz, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994)
Ambedkar, Babasaheb, Writings and Speeches, (ed) Vasant Moon (Bombay: Education Department, Govt of Maharashtra, 1989)
Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities (London: Verso, 1991)
Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G. and Tiffin, H. eds. , The Post-colonial Studies Reader (London: Routledge, 1995)
Bakhtin, M M , The Dialogic Imagination, trans. Carl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981)
Barry, Peter, Issues in Contemporary Critical Theory (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1987)
Blamires, Harry, A History of Literary Criticism (Delhi: Macmillan India, 2000)
Bhabha, Homi (ed) Nation and Narration (London: Routledge, 1990)
-------. The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1995)
Brennan, T, Salman Rushdie and the Third World (London: Macmillan Press, 1997)
Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, Urbana (University of Illinois Press, 1988)
-------, A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999)
Cowasjee, Saros, So Many Freedoms: A Study of Major Fictions of Mulk Raj Anand (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1977)
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, Provincializing Europe (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001)
Champakalaxmi R, Gopal S (eds) Tradition, Dissent, & Ideology (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996)
Chattterjee, Partha, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? (London: Zed Books, 1986)
-------, The Nation and Its Fragments (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993)
-------, (ed.) Wages of Freedom (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
De Beauvoir, Simon, The Second Sex (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1953)
Ezekiel, Nissim, Selected Prose, with an introduction by Adil Jussawalla (Delhi: OUP, 1992)
Eagleton, Terry, Literary Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983)
Fanon, Franz, The Wretched Of the Earth, trans. C. Farrington (New York: Grove Press, 1963)
-------, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. C.L. Markmann (New York: Grove Press, 1967)
Foucault, M, The Order of Things, trans. A. Sheridan-Smith (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970)
-------, Power/Knowledge, ed. Colin Gordon (New York: Pantheon, 1980)
-------, The History of Sexuality, trans. R. Hurley (New York: Vintage Books, 1990)
Forster, E M, Aspects of the Novel (London: Edward Arnold, 1927)
Friden, Betty, The Feminist Mystique (New York: W W Norton, 1963)
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-------, Dominance Without Hegemony (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998)
Harish, Trivedi, Colonial Transactions (Calcutta: Papyrus, 1993)
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-------, God as Political Philosopher (Kokatta: Samya, 2001)
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Jameson, F, The Political Unconscious (New York: Cornell University Press, 1981)
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Jain, Jasbir, Women’s Writing: Text and Context (New Delhi: Rawat, 1996)
Jain Jasbir, Writers of Indian Diaspora (Jaipur: Rawat: 1992)
Khair, Tabish, Babu Fiction: Alienation in Contemporary Indian English Novels (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001)
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Kundera, Milan, The Art of the Novel (Calcutta: Rupa & Co, 1992)
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-------, Colonialism/Postcolonialism (London: Routledge, 1998)
Lodge, David, Modern Criticism and Theory (New York: Pearson Education, 1988)
Mukherjee, Meenakshi, The Perishable Empire: Essays on Indian Writing in English (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000, 2002)
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-------, The Intimate Enemy (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983)
-------, The Illegitimacy of Nationalism (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994)
-------, The Romance of the State (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002)
-------, Time Warps (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003)
Naik, M K, Narayan, S A, Indian English Literature 1980 – 2000: A Critical Survey (Delhi: Pencraft International, 2001)
Patil P G (trans.), Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, Writings and Speeches (Bombay: Government of Maharashtra, 1994)
Rushdie, Salman, Imaginary Homelands (London: Penguin, 1992)
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-------, Culture and Imperialism (New York: Vintage, 1994)
Sangari, Kumkum, and Vaid, Suresh, (eds.), Recasting Women (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1989)
Sara, Suleri, Rhetoric of English Studies in India (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992)
Sarkar, Sumit, Writing Social History (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997)
-------, Beyond Nationalist Frames (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2002)
Shiva, Vandana, Staying Alive (New Delhi: Kali, 1988)
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-------. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. eds. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorthy, In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics (New York: Routledge, 1988)
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Walsh, William, R K Narayan: A Critical Approach (New Delhi: Allied, 1983)
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-------, Colonial Desire (London: Macmillan, 1989)